"While reinforced whisker inserts are much less susceptible to thermal shock from inconsistent coolant application and mechanical shock from interrupted cuts, it's better to be safe than sorry. Applying ceramic cutters is different but it's not alien. This simple drawing illustrates interrupted cuts on a turned workpiece. Milling Cutting speed 20-35 sfm Chip load .002 ipt Depth of cut .150-.200 in. Resistance to the fracture is an important advantage of the reinforced ceramic insert cutter. Everything has to be in proper tune, or a failure will occur. Sawing Use a carbide grit blade at a band speed of 100 fpm. The rotational speed for the calculated smaller diameter should then be increased to the value of the original surface speed in order to offset the loss in heat generation created by the voids. In general, the operational variable needed to be successful is speed—faster cutting generates more heat. Reducing cutting fluid use offers the chance for considerable cost savings. While machining with ceramics doesn't necessarily require special machine tools, the process does demand that the machine be in tip-top shape. Surface turning grey due to tool abrasion, Cutting Speed: 23 to 35 sfpm (1 to 1.4 meters per minute), Two or four flute and helix milling cutters work well. Calculate Speed and Feed for Turning Applications. It is within the metalcutting operation that ceramic cutters earn their stripes. "Coolant volume is more important than pressure in ceramic cutting applications," says Mr. Smith. Using carbide tooling: Cutting speed = 9-15 m/min (30-50 sfm). It is a highly productive tool for milling and turning applications. If you would like to buy Macor plates, rods, bars, tubes, or custom machined Macor components please contact us and one of our experts will be happy to assist you. Milling operations in which the machine feeds the target material along with the rotation of the cutting tool are known as climb milling … While much research has been conducted to describe the dynamics of chip formation, one common factor found in all of the theories is that much heat and stress gets generated as a cutting tool displaces the metal. I have to calculate the spindle speed and feed rate for machining special material called Macor (machinable ceramic). Milling in ceramic (Macor) hubihubi2 (Bioengineer) (OP) 2 Nov 13 17:07. "They can take interruptions in the workpiece surface. The winners in this nasty environment must be very hard materials that are resistant to heat and that are geometrically as well as chemically stable. In this Macor Machining Guide we will go over the basics of how to machine Macor and cover some more advanced operations. Carbide C2 or equivalent recommended for improved life. It starts with round (on the outside edge) being strongest and moves to 35° which is the weakest. In roughing operations, where surface finish is not a critical concern, this type of tool wear is generally not a concern. Many of the inherent cutting advantages of the grinding process—high heat tolerance, excellent surface finish, long tool life—transfer to milling and turning operations with the application of ceramic inserts. Ceramic cutters in many cases demand a new set of application skills from the shop looking to implement them. "In general, it works best on hard ferrous materials and nickel base alloys. Milling, on the other hand can be compared to interrupted machining in turning. Compared to turning, hard milling demands much higher spindle speeds to achieve the same surface speed. Here's a look at some of the ways they are used. Likewise there are different kinds of ceramics. Therefore in milling operations, each insert must travel faster to generate the heat equivalent of a single point turning tool. NOTE: This article covers speeds and feed rates for milling tools, as opposed to turning tools.Before using a cutting tool, it is necessary to understand tool cutting speeds and feed rates, more often referred to as “speeds and feeds.” Speeds and feeds are the cutting variables used in every milling operation and vary for each tool based on cutter diameter, operation, material, etc. For shops looking to use ceramic cutters, there are several key points that, if followed, will help make the implementation smooth and the machining successful. Softer metals like aluminum and mild steel have higher cutting speeds than do nasty metals like titanium or Inconel. Milling Cutting speed 20-35 sfm Chip load .002 ipt Depth of cut .150-.200 in. This is normal for ceramic cutting tools but perhaps is a bit unusual for the machinist or operator who is taught to perceive red or white hot chips as dangerous or undesirable.". In effect this calculation gives a smaller diameter. While there is a learning curve to machining Macor, it is certainly achievable with the correct skill and patience. Their application in metalworking has produced benefits for shops of all kinds through improved cutting performance and tool life, reductions in tooling costs and simplified changeover. When cutting speeds are too slow, insufficient heat is generated. Calculations use the desired tool diameter, number of teeth, cutting speed, and cutting feed, which should be chosen based on the specific cutting conditions, including the workpiece material and tool material. With ceramics, the object is to generate a threshold of heat per insert. A 0.5μin.-AA finish can be achieved. Because heat cannot be transferred ahead of the cutter, in effect, to anneal the already hardened workpiece, cutting forces become too high and insert failure occurs. Greenleaf introduced whisker reinforced ceramic inserts to the United States and has extensive experience in their successful application in metalworking shops. Sawing Use a carbide grit blade at a band speed … Enter the No. "When the correct speed to heat generation ratios are in effect," says Mr. Smith, "the chip produced will be bright red or almost white hot. Wire thread inserts can be used with MACOR®. In most traditional metalcutting, heat is the enemy. Cutting speed may be defined as the rate at the workpiece surface, irrespective of the machining operation used.
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